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Hannover attractions in 4K Lower Saxony Germany - Landes Niedersachsen Stephan Weil SPD. During the interview days, candidates will visit research groups which best match their scientific interest, meet with research group leaders to discuss their previous training and research experience, explain their motivation for joining GGNB, evaluate their future plans, and learn more about ongoing research and training offered by the graduate school. Buses Blackcoin Prognose throughout the city and to the neighboring villages, as well as intercity bus services from the station Göttingen ZOB, adjacent to the Beste Spielothek in Punkewitz finden station. Step 5: Admission. Before Hotels In Las Vegas Am Strip late medieval period, there was a single Duchy of Saxony. Details about enrollment are summarized on page 6 of this handout and on the internet pages of GGNB. Oktober den ersten regulären evangelischen Gottesdienst in Göttingen feiern. Juli Siehe auch : Ergebnisse der Kommunalwahlen in Göttingen. Später wurde Göttingen Sitz Glamour Party Dekanats des Bistums Hildesheim, zu dem heute alle römisch-katholischen Pfarrgemeinden der Stadt gehören. Diese Mannschaft hat die EuroChallenge gewonnen. In: Dietrich Denecke Hrsg.

See also: Projekt Landkreiskarten German. Voir aussi: Projet Landkreiskarten allemand. Zie ook: Projekt Landkreiskarten Duits.

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This license and the rights granted hereunder will terminate automatically upon any breach by you of the terms of this license. Any of the above conditions can be waived if you get permission from the copyright holder.

It was created by the merger of the State of Hanover with three smaller states on 1 November Lower Saxony has a natural boundary in the north in the North Sea and the lower and middle reaches of the River Elbe , although parts of the city of Hamburg lie south of the Elbe.

The state and city of Bremen is an enclave entirely surrounded by Lower Saxony. To the southeast, the state border runs through the Harz, low mountains that are part of the German Central Uplands.

In northeast, Lower Saxony is Lüneburg Heath. The heath is dominated by the poor, sandy soils of the geest , whilst in the central east and southeast in the loess börde zone , productive soils with high natural fertility occur.

Under these conditions—with loam and sand -containing soils—the land is well-developed agriculturally. The state is dominated by several large rivers running northwards through the state: the Ems , Weser , Aller , and Elbe.

For other significant elevations see: List of mountains and hills in Lower Saxony. Most of the mountains and hills are found in the southeastern part of the state.

The lowest point in the state, at about 2. The state's economy, population, and infrastructure are centred on the cities and towns of Hanover, Stadthagen, Celle, Braunschweig, Wolfsburg, Hildesheim, and Salzgitter.

Lower Saxony has clear regional divisions that manifest themselves geographically, as well as historically and culturally.

In the regions that used to be independent, especially the heartlands of the former states of Brunswick , Hanover , Oldenburg and Schaumburg-Lippe , a marked local regional awareness exists.

By contrast, the areas surrounding the Hanseatic cities of Bremen and Hamburg are much more oriented towards those centres.

Sometimes, overlaps and transition areas happen between the various regions of Lower Saxony. Several of the regions listed here are part of other, larger regions, that are also included in the list.

Lower Saxony falls climatically into the north temperate zone of central Europe that is affected by prevailing Westerlies and is located in a transition zone between the maritime climate of Western Europe and the continental climate of Eastern Europe.

This transition is clearly noticeable within the state: whilst the northwest experiences an Atlantic North Sea coastal to Sub-Atlantic climate, with comparatively low variations in temperature during the course of the year and a surplus water budget, the climate towards the southeast is increasingly affected by the Continent.

This is clearly shown by greater temperature variations between the summer and winter halves of the year and in lower and more variable amounts of precipitation across the year.

This sub-continental effect is most sharply seen in the Wendland, in the Weser Uplands Hamelin to Göttingen and in the area of Helmstedt. The highest levels of precipitation are experienced in the Harz because the Lower Saxon part forms the windward side of this mountain range against which orographic rain falls.

Lower Saxony is divided into 37 districts Landkreise or simply Kreise :. On 1 November the districts of Osterode and Göttingen were merged under the name Göttingen, not influencing the city's special status.

The name of Saxony derives from that of the Germanic tribe of the Saxons. Before the late medieval period, there was a single Duchy of Saxony.

The term "Lower Saxony" was used after the dissolution of the stem duchy in the late 13th century to disambiguate the parts of the former duchy ruled by the House of Welf from the Electorate of Saxony on one hand, and from the Duchy of Westphalia on the other.

The name and coat of arms of the present state go back to the Germanic tribe of Saxons. During the Migration Period some of the Saxon peoples left their homeland in Holstein about the 3rd century and pushed southwards over the Elbe, where they expanded into the sparsely populated regions in the rest of the lowlands, in the present-day Northwest Germany and the northeastern part of what is now the Netherlands.

From about the 7th century the Saxons had occupied a settlement area that roughly corresponds to the present state of Lower Saxony, of Westphalia and a number of areas to the east, for example, in what is now west and north Saxony-Anhalt.

The Frisians had not moved into this region; for centuries they preserved their independence in the most northwesterly region of the present-day Lower Saxon territory.

The original language of the folk in the area of Old Saxony was West Low German , one of the varieties of language in the Low German dialect group.

The establishment of permanent boundaries between what later became Lower Saxony and Westphalia began in the 12th century.

In , in a treaty between the Archbishopric of Cologne and the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg the lands claimed by the two territories were separated from each other.

The northern part of the Weser-Ems region was placed under the rule of Brunswick-Lüneburg. The word Niedersachsen was first used before in a Dutch rhyming chronicle Reimchronik.

At the same time a distinction was made with the eastern part of the old Saxon lands from the central German principalities later called Upper Saxony for dynastic reasons.

The close historical links between the domains of the Lower Saxon Circle now in modern Lower Saxony survived for centuries especially from a dynastic point of view.

The majority of historic territories whose land now lies within Lower Saxony were sub-principalities of the medieval, Welf estates of the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg.

All the Welf princes called themselves dukes "of Brunswick and Lüneburg" despite often ruling parts of a duchy that was forever being divided and reunited as various Welf lines multiplied or died out.

Over the course of time two great principalities survived east of the Weser: the Kingdom of Hanover and the Duchy of Brunswick after Hanover became a Prussian province ; after Brunswick became a free state.

Historically a close tie exists between the royal house of Hanover Electorate of Hanover to the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland as a result of their personal union in the 18th century.

West of the River Hunte a "de-Westphalianising process" began in [7] After the Congress of Vienna the territories of the later administrative regions Regierungsbezirke of Osnabrück and Aurich transferred to the Kingdom of Hanover.

This indicates that at that time the western administrations of the Prussian Province of Hanover and the state of Oldenburg were perceived as being "Lower Saxon".

The forerunners of today's state of Lower Saxony were lands that were geographically and, to some extent, institutionally interrelated from very early on.

The County of Schaumburg not to be confused with the Principality of Schaumburg-Lippe around the towns of Rinteln and Hessisch Oldendorf did indeed belong to the Prussian province of Hesse-Nassau until , a province that also included large parts of the present state of Hesse, including the cities of Kassel , Wiesbaden and Frankfurt am Main ; but in , however, the County of Schaumburg became part of the Prussian Province of Hanover.

Also before , namely , the city of Cuxhaven has been fully integrated into the Prussian Province of Hanover by the Greater Hamburg Act , so that in , when the state of Lower Saxony was founded, only four states needed to be merged.

With the exception of Bremen and the areas that were ceded to the Soviet Occupation Zone in , all those areas allocated to the new state of Lower Saxony in , had already been merged into the "Constituency Association of Lower Saxony" in In a lecture on 14 September , Dietmar von Reeken described the emergence of a "Lower Saxony consciousness" in the 19th century, the geographical basis of which was used to invent a territorial construct: the resulting local heritage societies Heimatvereine and their associated magazines routinely used the terms "Lower Saxony" or "Lower Saxon" in their names.

At the end of the s in the context of discussions about a reform of the Reich, and promoted by the expanding local heritage movement Heimatbewegung , a year conflict started between "Lower Saxony" and "Westphalia".

The supporters of this dispute were administrative officials and politicians, but regionally focussed scientists of various disciplines were supposed to have fuelled the arguments.

In the s, a real Lower Saxony did not yet exist, but there was a plethora of institutions that would have called themselves "Lower Saxon".

The motives and arguments in the disputes between "Lower Saxony" and "Westphalia" were very similar on both sides: economic interests, political aims, cultural interests and historical aspects.

Its minister president, Hinrich Wilhelm Kopf , had already suggested in June the formation of a state of Lower Saxony, that was to include the largest possible region in the middle of the British Zone.

In addition to the regions that actually became Lower Saxony subsequently, Kopf asked, in a memorandum dated April , for the inclusion of the former Prussian district of Minden-Ravensberg i.

The strong Welf connotations of this draft, according to Thomas Vogtherr, did not simplify the development of a Lower Saxon identity after An alternative model, proposed by politicians in Oldenburg and Brunswick, envisaged the foundation of the independent state of "Weser-Ems", that would be formed from the state of Oldenburg, the Hanseatic City of Bremen and the administrative regions of Aurich and Osnabrück.

Several representatives of the state of Oldenburg even demanded the inclusion of the Hanoverian districts of Diepholz , Syke , Osterholz-Scharmbeck and Wesermünde in the proposed state of "Weser-Ems".

Likewise an enlarged State of Brunswick was proposed in the southeast to include the Regierungsbezirk of Hildesheim and the district of Gifhorn.

Had this plan come to fruition, the territory of the present Lower Saxony would have consisted of three states of roughly equal size.

If the State of Oldenburg was to be dissolved, Vechta District would much rather be included in the Westphalian region. Since the foundation of the states of North Rhine-Westphalia and Hanover on 23 August the northern and eastern border of North Rhine-Westphalia has largely been identical with that of the Prussian Province of Westphalia.

In the end, at the meeting of the Zone Advisory Board on 20 September , Kopf's proposal with regard to the division of the British occupation zone into three large states proved to be capable of gaining a majority.

But there were exceptions:. The demands of Dutch politicians that the Netherlands should be given the German regions east of the Dutch-German border as war reparations , were roundly rejected at the London Conference of 26 March In fact only about 1.

The first Lower Saxon parliament or Landtag met on 9 December It was not elected; rather it was established by the British Occupation Administration a so-called "appointed parliament".

That same day the parliament elected the Social Democrat , Hinrich Wilhelm Kopf , the former Hanoverian president Regierungspräsident as their first minister president.

Kopf led a five-party coalition, whose basic task was to rebuild a state afflicted by the war's rigours.

Kopf's cabinet had to organise an improvement of food supplies and the reconstruction of the cities and towns destroyed by Allied air raids during the war years.

Hinrich Wilhelm Kopf remained — interrupted by the time in office of Heinrich Hellwege — — as the head of government in Lower Saxony until The greatest problem facing the first state government in the immediate post-war years was the challenge of integrating hundreds of thousands of refugees from Germany's former territories in the east such as Silesia and East Prussia , which had been annexed by Poland and the Soviet Union.

Like other university towns, Göttingen has developed its own quaint traditions. On the day they are awarded their doctorate degrees, students are drawn in handcarts from the Great Hall to the Gänseliesel -Fountain in front of the Old Town Hall.

There they have to climb the fountain and kiss the statue of the Gänseliesel goose girl. This practice is actually forbidden, but the law is not enforced.

The statue is considered the most kissed girl in the world. Nearly untouched by Allied bombing in World War II , the inner city of Göttingen is now an attractive place to live with many shops, cafes and bars.

For this reason, many university students live in the inner city and give Göttingen a youthful feel. Commercially, Göttingen is noted for its production of optical and precision-engineered machinery, being the seat of the light microscopy division of Carl Zeiss , Inc.

Unemployment in Göttingen was The city's railway station to the west of the city centre is on Germany's main north—south railway.

Göttingen has two professional basketball teams; both the men's and women's teams play in the Basketball-Bundesliga.

For the —08 season, both teams will play in the 1st division. The origins of Göttingen can be traced back to a village named Gutingi to the immediate south-east of the eventual city.

The name of the village probably derives from a small stream, called the Gote , that once flowed through it. Since the ending -ing denoted "living by", the name can be understood as "along the Gote".

Archaeological evidence points towards a settlement as early as the 7th century. It is first historically mentioned in a document by the Holy Roman Emperor Otto I in AD, in which the emperor gives some of his belongings in the village to the Moritz monastery in Magdeburg.

Archaeological findings point to extensive commercial relations with other regions and a developed craftsmanship in this early period.

In its early days, Gutingi was overshadowed by Grona , historically documented from the year AD as a newly built fortress, lying opposite Gutingi on a hill west of the River Leine.

It was subsequently used as an Ottonian imperial palace , with 18 visits of kings and emperors documented between and AD.

The last Holy Roman Emperor to use the fortress of Grona said to have been fond of the location , Heinrich II — , also had a church built in the neighbouring Gutingi , dedicated to Saint Alban.

The current church building that occupies this site, the St. Albani Church, was built in The fortress then lost its function as a palace in , after Heinrich II died there, having retreated to it in ill health.

It was subsequently used by the lords of Grone. The fortress was destroyed by the citizens of Göttingen between and , and finally razed to the ground by Duke Otto I during his feuds with the city of Göttingen in With time, a trading settlement started to form at the river crossing of the Leine to the west of the village, from which it took its name.

It is this settlement that was eventually given city rights. The original village remained recognisable as a separate entity until about , at which time it was incorporated within the town's fortification.

It is likely the present city was founded between and , although the exact circumstances are not known. The configuration of the streets in the oldest part of the town is in the shape of a pentagon , and it has been proposed that the inception of the town followed a planned design.

At this time, the town was known by the name Gudingin or also Gotingen. Its inhabitants obeyed welfish ownership and ruling rights, and the first Göttingen burghers are mentioned, indicating that Göttingen was already organised as a true city.

The original Welf residency in the town consisted of a farm building and the stables of the Welf dukes, which occupied the oldest part of the city's fortifications built prior to In its early days, Göttingen became involved in the conflicts of the Welfs with their enemies.

The initial conflicts in the first decades of the 13th century benefited the burghers of Göttingen, who were able to use the political and military situation to be courted by various parties, and hence forcing the Welf town lords to make certain compromises with the town.

These included privileges concerning self-governance of the town, protection of traders, and trading facilitation. The document also promises that the town is not to fall into the hands of other powers.

It is to be assumed that at this time Göttingen possessed a city council of burghers. The names of council members are first given in a document from The area secured by the initial fortification included the old market place, the old town hall, the two main churches, St.

Johannes St John's and St. Jacobi St. James's , the smaller church St. Nikolai St. Outside of the fortification in front of the Geismar city gate lay the old village with the Church of St.

Alban, which was subsequently known as Geismarer altes Dorf old Geismar village. This village was only to a limited extent under welfish control and thus could not be included in the town's privileges and fortification.

The town was initially protected by a rampart, as of the late 13th century then also by walls on top of the mound-like ramparts. This made it smaller than contemporary Hanover , but larger than the neighbouring Welfish towns of Northeim , Duderstadt and Hann.

The Gote stream that flowed south of the walls of the town was connected to the River Leine via a channel at about this time and the waterway has since been known as the Leine Canal.

Duke Albrecht I governed for his brother, a minor, at first. Subsequently, the brothers agreed to divide the territory between themselves in , effective Albert II attempted to gain further control over the economically and politically rapidly growing town by founding a new town German : Neustadt west of the original town, across the Leine Canal and outside of the Groner City Gate.

This competing settlement consisted of a single street, no more than 80 yards long, with houses on either side of the street. The Duke, however, could not prevent Göttingen's westward expansion nor the success of the Göttingen City Council in effectively checking any hope of economic development in the Neustadt.

The St. Marien Church St. Mary's was built to the south of the Neustadt which, together with all adjoining farm buildings, was given to the Teutonic Knights in After the failure of the new town , the city council bought up the uncomfortable competition to the west in for three hundred Marks , and obtained the promise from the Duke that he would not erect any fortress within a mile of the town.

Two monasteries were also founded on the edge of the town at the end of the 13th century. To the east, in the area of today's Wilhelmsplatz , a Franciscan monastery was built as early as , according to the city chronicler Franciscus Lubecus.

In , Albert the Fat permitted the founding of a Dominican monastery along the Leine Canal opposite the Neustadt , for which the Paulinerkirche Pauline church , completed in , was constructed.

Jews settled in Göttingen in the late 13th century. On 1 March , the Duke gave the City Council permission to allow the first Jew, Moses, to settle inside the town limits.

The subsequent Jewish population lived predominantly close to St. These dukes joined Göttingen and surrounding towns in battles against aristocratic knights in the surroundings of Göttingen, in the course of which the citizens of Göttingen succeeded in destroying the fortress of Grone between and , as well as the fortress of Rosdorf.

Since Otto the Mild died without leaving any children, his brothers Magnus and Ernest divided the land between themselves.

Ernest I received Göttingen, the poorest of all the Welf principalities, which was to remain separate from Brunswick for a long time to come.

At this time, the territory consisted of the regions formerly owned by Northeim, the towns of Göttingen, Uslar, Dransfeld, Münden, Gieselwerder and half of Moringen.

Not much is known about the rule of Duke Ernest I, but it is generally assumed that he continued to fight against aristocratic knights.

The epithet the Evil came from Otto I's incessant feuds. Breaking with the policies of his predecessors, he frequently aligned himself with the aristocratic knights of the neighbourhood in battles against the cities, whose growing power disturbed him.

Under Otto the Evil, Göttingen gained a large degree of independence. After losing control of the provincial court at the Leineberg to Göttingen in , Otto finally tried to impose his influence on Göttingen in , but with little success.

In April , Göttingen's citizens stormed and destroyed the fortress within the city's walls. In retaliation, Otto destroyed villages and farms in the town's surroundings.

However, Göttingen's citizens gained a victory over the Duke's army in a battle between the villages of Rosdorf and Grone, under their leader Moritz of Uslar, forcing Otto to acknowledge the independence of the town and its surrounding properties.

After Duke Otto I of Göttingen relinquished his jurisdiction over Jews to the town of Göttingen in the years —70, conditions for Jews greatly deteriorated, and several bloody persecutions and evictions from the town followed.

Between and , no Jews lived in Göttingen at all. The trend towards ever diminishing Welf influence over the town continued until the end of the 15th century, although the town officially remains a Welf property.

Nevertheless, it is counted in some contemporaneous documents among the Imperial Free Cities. The 14th and 15th centuries thus represent a time of political and economic power expansion, which is also reflected in the contemporary architecture.

The expansion of the St. Johannis Church to a Gothic hall church began in the first half of the 14th century. After completion of the work on St.

John's Church, the rebuilding of St James's was begun in the second half of the 14th century. The original, smaller church that preceded this building was probably initiated by Henry the Lion or his successor, and functioned as a fortress chapel to the city fortress that lay immediately behind it.

The representative old town hall was built between and

2 comments

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